# json --- JSON 编码和解码器¶

JSON (JavaScript Object Notation)，由 RFC 7159 (which obsoletes RFC 4627) 和 ECMA-404 指定，是一个受 JavaScript 的对象字面量语法启发的轻量级数据交换格式，尽管它不仅仅是一个严格意义上的 JavaScript 的字集 1

json 提供了与标准库 marshalpickle 相似的API接口。

>>> import json
>>> json.dumps(['foo', {'bar': ('baz', None, 1.0, 2)}])
'["foo", {"bar": ["baz", null, 1.0, 2]}]'
>>> print(json.dumps("\"foo\bar"))
"\"foo\bar"
>>> print(json.dumps('\u1234'))
"\u1234"
>>> print(json.dumps('\\'))
"\\"
>>> print(json.dumps({"c": 0, "b": 0, "a": 0}, sort_keys=True))
{"a": 0, "b": 0, "c": 0}
>>> from io import StringIO
>>> io = StringIO()
>>> json.dump(['streaming API'], io)
>>> io.getvalue()
'["streaming API"]'

>>> import json
>>> json.dumps([1, 2, 3, {'4': 5, '6': 7}], separators=(',', ':'))
'[1,2,3,{"4":5,"6":7}]'

>>> import json
>>> print(json.dumps({'4': 5, '6': 7}, sort_keys=True, indent=4))
{
"4": 5,
"6": 7
}

JSON解码:

>>> import json
>>> json.loads('["foo", {"bar":["baz", null, 1.0, 2]}]')
['foo', {'bar': ['baz', None, 1.0, 2]}]
'"foo\x08ar'
>>> from io import StringIO
>>> io = StringIO('["streaming API"]')
['streaming API']

>>> import json
>>> def as_complex(dct):
...     if '__complex__' in dct:
...         return complex(dct['real'], dct['imag'])
...     return dct
...
>>> json.loads('{"__complex__": true, "real": 1, "imag": 2}',
...     object_hook=as_complex)
(1+2j)
>>> import decimal
Decimal('1.1')

>>> import json
>>> class ComplexEncoder(json.JSONEncoder):
...     def default(self, obj):
...         if isinstance(obj, complex):
...             return [obj.real, obj.imag]
...         # Let the base class default method raise the TypeError
...         return json.JSONEncoder.default(self, obj)
...
>>> json.dumps(2 + 1j, cls=ComplexEncoder)
'[2.0, 1.0]'
>>> ComplexEncoder().encode(2 + 1j)
'[2.0, 1.0]'
>>> list(ComplexEncoder().iterencode(2 + 1j))
['[2.0', ', 1.0', ']']

$echo '{"json":"obj"}' | python -m json.tool { "json": "obj" }$ echo '{1.2:3.4}' | python -m json.tool
Expecting property name enclosed in double quotes: line 1 column 2 (char 1)

JSON 是 YAML 1.2 的一个子集。由该模块的默认设置生成的 JSON （尤其是默认的 “分隔符” 设置值）也是 YAML 1.0 and 1.1 的一个子集。因此该模块也能够用于序列化为 YAML。

This module's encoders and decoders preserve input and output order by default. Order is only lost if the underlying containers are unordered.

Prior to Python 3.7, dict was not guaranteed to be ordered, so inputs and outputs were typically scrambled unless collections.OrderedDict was specifically requested. Starting with Python 3.7, the regular dict became order preserving, so it is no longer necessary to specify collections.OrderedDict for JSON generation and parsing.

## 基本使用¶

json.dump(obj, fp, *, skipkeys=False, ensure_ascii=True, check_circular=True, allow_nan=True, cls=None, indent=None, separators=None, default=None, sort_keys=False, **kw)

json 模块始终产生 str 对象而非 bytes 对象。因此，fp.write() 必须支持 str 输入。

default 被指定时，其应该是一个函数，每当某个对象无法被序列化时它会被调用。它应该返回该对象的一个可以被 JSON 编码的版本或者引发一个 TypeError。如果没有被指定，则会直接引发 TypeError

picklemarshal 不同，JSON 不是一个具有框架的协议，所以尝试多次使用同一个 fp 调用 dump() 来序列化多个对象会产生一个不合规的 JSON 文件。

json.dumps(obj, *, skipkeys=False, ensure_ascii=True, check_circular=True, allow_nan=True, cls=None, indent=None, separators=None, default=None, sort_keys=False, **kw)

JSON 中的键-值对中的键永远是 str 类型的。当一个对象被转化为 JSON 时，字典中所有的键都会被强制转换为字符串。这所造成的结果是字典被转换为 JSON 然后转换回字典时可能和原来的不相等。换句话说，如果 x 具有非字符串的键，则有 loads(dumps(x)) != x

json.load(fp, *, cls=None, object_hook=None, parse_float=None, parse_int=None, parse_constant=None, object_pairs_hook=None, **kw)

object_hook 是一个可选的函数，它会被调用于每一个解码出的对象字面量（即一个 dict）。object_hook 的返回值会取代原本的 dict。这一特性能够被用于实现自定义解码器（如 JSON-RPC 的类型提示)。

object_pairs_hook is an optional function that will be called with the result of any object literal decoded with an ordered list of pairs. The return value of object_pairs_hook will be used instead of the dict. This feature can be used to implement custom decoders. If object_hook is also defined, the object_pairs_hook takes priority.

parse_float, if specified, will be called with the string of every JSON float to be decoded. By default, this is equivalent to float(num_str). This can be used to use another datatype or parser for JSON floats (e.g. decimal.Decimal).

parse_int, if specified, will be called with the string of every JSON int to be decoded. By default, this is equivalent to int(num_str). This can be used to use another datatype or parser for JSON integers (e.g. float).

parse_constant, if specified, will be called with one of the following strings: '-Infinity', 'Infinity', 'NaN'. This can be used to raise an exception if invalid JSON numbers are encountered.

To use a custom JSONDecoder subclass, specify it with the cls kwarg; otherwise JSONDecoder is used. Additional keyword arguments will be passed to the constructor of the class.

If the data being deserialized is not a valid JSON document, a JSONDecodeError will be raised.

json.loads(s, *, cls=None, object_hook=None, parse_float=None, parse_int=None, parse_constant=None, object_pairs_hook=None, **kw)

Deserialize s (a str, bytes or bytearray instance containing a JSON document) to a Python object using this conversion table.

The other arguments have the same meaning as in load(), except encoding which is ignored and deprecated since Python 3.1.

If the data being deserialized is not a valid JSON document, a JSONDecodeError will be raised.

Deprecated since version 3.1, will be removed in version 3.9: encoding keyword argument.

## 编码器和解码器¶

class json.JSONDecoder(*, object_hook=None, parse_float=None, parse_int=None, parse_constant=None, strict=True, object_pairs_hook=None)

JSON

Python

object

dict

array

list

string

str

int

float

true

True

false

False

null

None

object_hook, if specified, will be called with the result of every JSON object decoded and its return value will be used in place of the given dict. This can be used to provide custom deserializations (e.g. to support JSON-RPC class hinting).

object_pairs_hook, if specified will be called with the result of every JSON object decoded with an ordered list of pairs. The return value of object_pairs_hook will be used instead of the dict. This feature can be used to implement custom decoders. If object_hook is also defined, the object_pairs_hook takes priority.

parse_float, if specified, will be called with the string of every JSON float to be decoded. By default, this is equivalent to float(num_str). This can be used to use another datatype or parser for JSON floats (e.g. decimal.Decimal).

parse_int, if specified, will be called with the string of every JSON int to be decoded. By default, this is equivalent to int(num_str). This can be used to use another datatype or parser for JSON integers (e.g. float).

parse_constant, if specified, will be called with one of the following strings: '-Infinity', 'Infinity', 'NaN'. This can be used to raise an exception if invalid JSON numbers are encountered.

If strict is false (True is the default), then control characters will be allowed inside strings. Control characters in this context are those with character codes in the 0--31 range, including '\t' (tab), '\n', '\r' and '\0'.

If the data being deserialized is not a valid JSON document, a JSONDecodeError will be raised.

decode(s)

raw_decode(s)

s 中解码出 JSON 文档（以 JSON 文档开头的一个 str 对象）并返回一个 Python 表示形式为 2 元组以及指明该文档在 s 中结束位置的序号。

class json.JSONEncoder(*, skipkeys=False, ensure_ascii=True, check_circular=True, allow_nan=True, sort_keys=False, indent=None, separators=None, default=None)

Supports the following objects and types by default:

Python

JSON

dict

object

array

str

string

int, float, int- & float派生枚举

number

True

true

False

false

None

null

To extend this to recognize other objects, subclass and implement a default() method with another method that returns a serializable object for o if possible, otherwise it should call the superclass implementation (to raise TypeError).

If skipkeys is false (the default), then it is a TypeError to attempt encoding of keys that are not str, int, float or None. If skipkeys is true, such items are simply skipped.

If check_circular is true (the default), then lists, dicts, and custom encoded objects will be checked for circular references during encoding to prevent an infinite recursion (which would cause an OverflowError). Otherwise, no such check takes place.

If allow_nan is true (the default), then NaN, Infinity, and -Infinity will be encoded as such. This behavior is not JSON specification compliant, but is consistent with most JavaScript based encoders and decoders. Otherwise, it will be a ValueError to encode such floats.

If sort_keys is true (default: False), then the output of dictionaries will be sorted by key; this is useful for regression tests to ensure that JSON serializations can be compared on a day-to-day basis.

default 被指定时，其应该是一个函数，每当某个对象无法被序列化时它会被调用。它应该返回该对象的一个可以被 JSON 编码的版本或者引发一个 TypeError。如果没有被指定，则会直接引发 TypeError

default(o)

Implement this method in a subclass such that it returns a serializable object for o, or calls the base implementation (to raise a TypeError).

For example, to support arbitrary iterators, you could implement default like this:

def default(self, o):
try:
iterable = iter(o)
except TypeError:
pass
else:
return list(iterable)
# Let the base class default method raise the TypeError
return json.JSONEncoder.default(self, o)
encode(o)

Return a JSON string representation of a Python data structure, o. For example:

>>> json.JSONEncoder().encode({"foo": ["bar", "baz"]})
'{"foo": ["bar", "baz"]}'
iterencode(o)

Encode the given object, o, and yield each string representation as available. For example:

for chunk in json.JSONEncoder().iterencode(bigobject):
mysocket.write(chunk)

## 异常¶

exception json.JSONDecodeError(msg, doc, pos)

Subclass of ValueError with the following additional attributes:

msg

doc

The JSON document being parsed.

pos

The start index of doc where parsing failed.

lineno

The line corresponding to pos.

colno

The column corresponding to pos.

3.5 新版功能.

## Standard Compliance and Interoperability¶

The JSON format is specified by RFC 7159 and by ECMA-404. This section details this module's level of compliance with the RFC. For simplicity, JSONEncoder and JSONDecoder subclasses, and parameters other than those explicitly mentioned, are not considered.

This module does not comply with the RFC in a strict fashion, implementing some extensions that are valid JavaScript but not valid JSON. In particular:

• Infinite and NaN number values are accepted and output;

• Repeated names within an object are accepted, and only the value of the last name-value pair is used.

Since the RFC permits RFC-compliant parsers to accept input texts that are not RFC-compliant, this module's deserializer is technically RFC-compliant under default settings.

### Character Encodings¶

The RFC requires that JSON be represented using either UTF-8, UTF-16, or UTF-32, with UTF-8 being the recommended default for maximum interoperability.

As permitted, though not required, by the RFC, this module's serializer sets ensure_ascii=True by default, thus escaping the output so that the resulting strings only contain ASCII characters.

Other than the ensure_ascii parameter, this module is defined strictly in terms of conversion between Python objects and Unicode strings, and thus does not otherwise directly address the issue of character encodings.

The RFC prohibits adding a byte order mark (BOM) to the start of a JSON text, and this module's serializer does not add a BOM to its output. The RFC permits, but does not require, JSON deserializers to ignore an initial BOM in their input. This module's deserializer raises a ValueError when an initial BOM is present.

The RFC does not explicitly forbid JSON strings which contain byte sequences that don't correspond to valid Unicode characters (e.g. unpaired UTF-16 surrogates), but it does note that they may cause interoperability problems. By default, this module accepts and outputs (when present in the original str) code points for such sequences.

### Infinite and NaN Number Values¶

The RFC does not permit the representation of infinite or NaN number values. Despite that, by default, this module accepts and outputs Infinity, -Infinity, and NaN as if they were valid JSON number literal values:

>>> # Neither of these calls raises an exception, but the results are not valid JSON
>>> json.dumps(float('-inf'))
'-Infinity'
>>> json.dumps(float('nan'))
'NaN'
>>> # Same when deserializing
-inf
nan

In the serializer, the allow_nan parameter can be used to alter this behavior. In the deserializer, the parse_constant parameter can be used to alter this behavior.

### Repeated Names Within an Object¶

The RFC specifies that the names within a JSON object should be unique, but does not mandate how repeated names in JSON objects should be handled. By default, this module does not raise an exception; instead, it ignores all but the last name-value pair for a given name:

>>> weird_json = '{"x": 1, "x": 2, "x": 3}'
{'x': 3}

The object_pairs_hook parameter can be used to alter this behavior.

### Top-level Non-Object, Non-Array Values¶

The old version of JSON specified by the obsolete RFC 4627 required that the top-level value of a JSON text must be either a JSON object or array (Python dict or list), and could not be a JSON null, boolean, number, or string value. RFC 7159 removed that restriction, and this module does not and has never implemented that restriction in either its serializer or its deserializer.

Regardless, for maximum interoperability, you may wish to voluntarily adhere to the restriction yourself.

### Implementation Limitations¶

Some JSON deserializer implementations may set limits on:

• the size of accepted JSON texts

• the maximum level of nesting of JSON objects and arrays

• the range and precision of JSON numbers

• the content and maximum length of JSON strings

This module does not impose any such limits beyond those of the relevant Python datatypes themselves or the Python interpreter itself.

When serializing to JSON, beware any such limitations in applications that may consume your JSON. In particular, it is common for JSON numbers to be deserialized into IEEE 754 double precision numbers and thus subject to that representation's range and precision limitations. This is especially relevant when serializing Python int values of extremely large magnitude, or when serializing instances of "exotic" numerical types such as decimal.Decimal.

## Command Line Interface¶

Source code: Lib/json/tool.py

The json.tool module provides a simple command line interface to validate and pretty-print JSON objects.

If the optional infile and outfile arguments are not specified, sys.stdin and sys.stdout will be used respectively:

$echo '{"json": "obj"}' | python -m json.tool { "json": "obj" }$ echo '{1.2:3.4}' | python -m json.tool
Expecting property name enclosed in double quotes: line 1 column 2 (char 1)

### Command line options¶

infile

The JSON file to be validated or pretty-printed:

\$ python -m json.tool mp_films.json
[
{
"title": "And Now for Something Completely Different",
"year": 1971
},
{
"title": "Monty Python and the Holy Grail",
"year": 1975
}
]

If infile is not specified, read from sys.stdin.

outfile

Write the output of the infile to the given outfile. Otherwise, write it to sys.stdout.

--sort-keys

Sort the output of dictionaries alphabetically by key.

3.5 新版功能.

--json-lines

Parse every input line as separate JSON object.

3.8 新版功能.

-h, --help

Show the help message.

1

As noted in the errata for RFC 7159, JSON permits literal U+2028 (LINE SEPARATOR) and U+2029 (PARAGRAPH SEPARATOR) characters in strings, whereas JavaScript (as of ECMAScript Edition 5.1) does not.